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Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh: Giới từ

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NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH: GIỚI TỪ I. ĐỊNH NGHĨA Giới từ là từ loại chỉ sự liên quan giữa các từ loại trong cụm từ, trong câu. Những từ thường đi sau giới từ là tân ngữ (Object), Verb + ing, Cụm danh từ ... Ví dụ: - I went into the room. - I was sitting in the room at that time. II. VỊ TRÍ 1. Sau TO BE, trước danh từ: + The book is on the table. = quyển sách ở trên bàn. + I will study in australia for 2 years. = tôi sẽ học ở úc trong 2 năm. 2. Sau động từ: Có thể liền sau động từ, có thể bị 1 từ khác chen giữa động từ và giới từ. + I live in ho chi minh city = tôi sống ở thành phố hồ chí minh. + Take off your hat! cởi nón của bạn ra! + I have an air-conditioner, but i only turn it on in summer. = tôi có máy lạnh, nhưng tôi chỉ bật nó lên vào mùa hè. 3. Sau tính từ: + I'm not worried about living in a foreign country. = tôi không lo lắng về việc sống ở nước ngoài. + He is not angry with you. = anh ấy không giận bạn. III. HÌNH THỨC 1. Giới từ đơn (simple prepositions): Là giới từ có một chữ : in, at, on, for, from, to, under, over, with … 2. Giới từ đôi (double prepositions): Là giới từ được tạo ra bằng cách hợp 2 giới từ đơn lại: Into, onto, upon, without, within, underneath, throughout, from among … 3. Giới từ kép (compound prepositions): Là giới từ được tạo thành bằng tiếp đầu ngữ a hoặc be: About, among, across , amid, above, against, Before, behind, beside, beyond, beneath, between, below… 4. Giới từ do phân từ ( participle prepositions ): According to ( tùy theo), during ( trong khoảng ), owing to ( do ở ), pending ( trong khi) , saving = save = except ( ngoại trừ ), notwithstanding ( mặc dù ) , past ( hơn, qua ) considering ( xét theo ) concerning/ regarding /touching ( về vấn đề, về ), excepting = except ( ngoại trừ ) 5. Cụm từ được dùng như giới từ: Giới từ loại này bao gồm cả một cụm từ : Because of ( bởi vì ); By means of ( do, bằng cách); In spite of (mặc dù); In opposition to ( đối nghịch với ); On account of ( bởi vì ); In the place of ( thay vì ); In the event of ( nếu mà ); With a view to ( với ý định để );p For the shake of ( vì); On behalf of ( thay mặt cho); In view of ( xét về ); With reference to ( về vấn đề, liên hệ tới) 6. Giới từ trá hình: Đây là nhóm giới từ được ẩn trong hình thức khác: At 7 o'clock (o' = of): Lúc 7 giờ IV. BÀI LUYỆN TẬP 1. We’ll buy a smaller house when the children have grown________ and left home. 2. The computer isn’t working. It broke ________this morning. 3. My headaches have been much better since I gave ________drinking coffee. 4. I turned ________their offer because they weren’t going to pay me enough money. 5. It was not a problem. We looked ________his number in the telephone book. 6. Helen takes ________her mother in many ways. 7. We need to set ________early tomorrow. 8. The plane took ________very quickly. 9. Anne’s leaving________ London tomorrow morning. 10. Your friend is always complaining________ her job. 11. If there was a technical failure, Gagarin might never get________ to the Earth. 12. Courses like shoemaking or glass engraving provide people ________practical skills they can do with their hands. 13. She is famous ________her beautiful face and sweet voice. 14. We are all aware________ the importance of the environment protection. 15. His opinion is different________ mine. 16. If you don’t pay attention________ the teacher, you won’t understand the lesson. 17. I’m not familiar________ his name, but his face seems familiar me. 18. We were very grateful ________our friends for all of their assistance. 19. No one knew precisely what would happen________ a human being in space. 20. How would the mind deal ________the psychological tension? 21. I’m good ________English, but I’m bad ________Mathematics. 22. Mrs. Brown is often worried ________money. 23. Her parents are very pleased ________her French. 24. I’m not interested ________politics. 25. I’m bit short ________money. Can you lend me some? 26. I was delighted ________the present you gave me. 27. She was sad because he was very rude________ her. 28. She was very angry________ Tom. 29. Fred is capable ________doing better work than he is doing at present. 30. You get bored ________doing the same thing every day. 31. Thank you. It was very kind ________you to help me. 32. Mr. Green is responsible ________hiring employees. 33. There’s really no need for you to be afraid ________the examination. 34. Ken was proud ________his good marks on the English. 35. My plan is similar ________yours, but it is different________ Ken’s. 36. Pierre said he had become quite fond ________American hamburgers. 37. That fashion magazine is full ________advertising for women’s clothes. 38. Thin gloves aren’t very suitable________ that kind of work. 39. They were happy________ the results of the election. 40. Y. Gagarin lifted________ into space aboard the Vostok 1 9.07 a.m. Moscow time ________ 12th April, 1961. 41. If you want to lose weight, you must go ________a diet. 42. You should learn ________heart all the new words and try to use them in the context. 43. We have been learning English ________five years. 44. Can you send it to me ________fax? 45. She’s never satisfied ________what she has got. 46. She wanted to borrow some books ________him but she was shy asking. 47. They succeeded ________escaping ________the burning house. 48. I don’t approve ________your smoking. I wish you would give that habit. 49. Do you think we’ll find a solution ________the problem? 50. I must try and look ________ my notes before the exam. 51. He admitted having opened the suitcase________ asking its owner. 52. Opening the parcel, he was surprised ________what he saw. 53. She insisted ________him wearing the red tie. 54. The teacher tried to explain the new formula ________his students. 55. The English contest organized ________our teachers is an annual event in my school. 56. The participants must find ________all the answers in order to go in the next round. 57. Are you excited ________going on holiday next week? 58. She said to me “why don’t you relax ________a while?” 59. ________the end of the film, the heroine was reunited with her family. 60. On behalf ________our group, he made a speech at the meeting. 61. Have you washed ________your hands having lunch. 62. He was accused________ having stolen a car. 63. Thank you very much ________inviting me to your party. 64. We could not play soccer due________ the bad weather. 65. If you don’t want to watch TV. Turn it________, please. 66. He is retired. He lives ________his pension. 67. He’s getting bored ________learning________ heart. 68. The bomb went ________killing several by-standers. 69. They cancelled the flight because ________the storm. 70. The local people are very hospitable ________strangers. 71. Why were you absent ________class this morning? 72. In English lessons we always speak ________English. 73. When I bought the house, my sister helped me ________with a loan. 74. Your father is very kind________ David. 75. Your plan is similar ________his. 76. She is accustomed ________getting up early. 77. This area is rich ________oil. 78. Are you acquainted ________this man? 79. It was very nice ________him to give me a lift. 80. Smoking is harmful ________our health. 81. Mary always take good care ________her children. 82. Our study is very important ________our future and useful ________our country. 83. Why don't you ask ________a pay increase? 84. Don't shout ________the child when he makes a mistake. 85. Ken prefers Chinese food ________French food. 86. How long have they been working ________the company? 87. He wore a hat, which made him look________ a spy. 88. I think your mother should let you make ________your own mind. 89. The pens made ________plastic are very cheap . 90. Many of the stories are based ________rumor. 91. Was your friend successful ________getting a loan from the bank? 92. If you look ________the book, you can find what you need. 93. You should make use________ the books you have. 94. She was very upset ________the news other father’s death. 95. How would the body react________ the extreme changes in temperature? 96. We congratulate you ________your successful flight. 97. The American people shared ________the Soviet people their satisfaction for the safe flight. 98. Most of the streets were named ________national heroes. 99. China became the third country in the world to be able to independently carry ________manned space flights. 100. He was in orbit around the Earth ________a speed of more than 17,000 miles per hour. KEY 1. up 2. down 3. up 4. down 5. up 6. after 7. off 8. off 9. for 10. about 11. back 12. with 13. for 14. of 15. from 16. to 17. with 18. to 19. to 20. with 21. at/at 22. about 23. with 24. in 25. of 26. with 27. to 28. with 29. of 30. with 31. of 32. for 33. of 34. of 35. to 36. of 37. of 38. for 39. with 40. off / at / on 41. on 42. by 43. for 44. by 45. with 46. from/ of 47. in / from 48. of 49. to 50. through 51. without 52. at 53. on 54. to 55. for 56. out 57. about 58. for 59. at 60. of 61. before 62. of 63. for . of 64. to 65. off 66. on 67. with/by 68. off 69. of 70. to 71. from 72. in 73. out 74. to 75. to 76. to 77. in 78. with 79. of 80. to 81. of 82. for/ for 83. for 84. at 85. to 86. for 87. like 88. up 89. of 90. on 91. in 92. through 93. of 94. about 95. to 96. on 97. with 99. out 100. at 98. after