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IG: phuc.gol CONDITIONALS A Conditional Sentence has two parts: IF Clause and Main Clause. Examples: If I were a bird, I would be a white pigeon. If he comes, tell him to wait for me. Had you done as I told you, I think you would’ve succeeded. A. POSSIBLE CONDITION IN THE PRESENT/ FUTURE IF Clause Main Clause Simple Present Simple Present (Please) (Don’t) V0 S + will/ shall/ can/ may/ etc. + V0 Examples If you are right, I am wrong. If you heat water, it boils. If you press the switch, the computer comes on. If you meet Henry, please ask him why he’s absent today. If you see Cheryl, don’t tell her anything. I may call you tonight if I have time. If you don’t apologize, I’ll never speak to you again. B. IMPOSSIBLE CONDITION IN THE PRESENT/ FUTURE IF Clause S + Ved/2 S + were Main Clause S + would/ could/ might/ etc. + V0 Examples If I were a flower, I would be a sunflower. If it weren’t raining, I might work in the garden now. Rachel wouldn’t always be late if she got up earlier. C. IMPOSSIBLE CONDITION IN THE PAST IF Clause Past Perfect Main Clause S + would/ could/ might/ etc. + have + V3/ed Examples If I had taken his advice at that time, I’d have had great success. I could’ve contacted you if I’d had my mobile yesterday. If he hadn’t wasted too much time, he wouldn’t have failed in his examination. D. MIXED CONDITIONALS Definition We use a mixed conditional to show a past event has an effect on the present. The IF Clause refers to the past (third conditional) and the Main Clause refers to the present or future (second conditional) Examples If Brahms hadn’t broken his leg since yesterday, he would be able to play football now. I would be sitting in a comfortable office now if I’d worked harder at school. E. SOME REVALENT FORMS Forms UNLESS = IF…NOT Meaning Trừ phi, nếu…không PROVIDED/ PROVIDING (THAT) AS LONG AS Chiefly used with permission (miễn là) Chỉ cần, với điều kiện, chừng nào mà, miễn là Với điều kiện là ON CONDITION THAT IN CASE IN CASE OF + N = IF THERE IS A/ AN + N SUPPOSE/ SUPPOSING (THAT) = WHAT IF We use in case when we are thinking about something might happen. (phòng khi) An in case clause is normally placed after the main clause. Examples I will go for a walk unless it rains. = I will go for a walk if it doesn’t rain. Warning: We don’t use unless for impossible conditions. You can camp here provided you leave no mess. I’ll lend you my car as long as you bring it back tonight. You will be paid tomorrow on condition that the work is finished. I’m going to buy a sandwich in case I get hungry later. I always slept on the phone in case he rang during the night. In case of accident, phone 999. = If there is an accident, phone 999. Suppose the plane is late? = What (will happen) if the plane is late? “What if, what if we start to drive? What if, what if we close our eyes? What if we’re speeding through red lights into paradise?” (Youth - Troy Sivan) Warning: * Suppose is also used to give suggestion: Suppose you ask him = Why don’t you ask him? * Proverb: What if I am? Tao thế thì đã sao nào? (mang tính thách thức) Forms IF ≠ WHEN Meaning WHEN is used when the speaker knows something for sure. IF is used when the speaker is not sure about something. BUT FOR + N IF IT WERE NOT FOR + N Nếu không có IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR +N Cho dù EVEN IF Examples When Robert’s parents come home, they will take him out for a meal. If Robert’s parents are at home, there won’t be a party. If you hadn’t helped us, we would have been in trouble. = But for your help, we would have been in trouble. But for the difficult view, that would be a lovely room. = If it weren’t for the difficult view, that would be a lovely room. But for the rain, they would have had a good picnic. = If it hadn’t rained, they would have had a good picnic. I still may not forgive you even if you apologize, Even if you take a taxi, you’ll still miss your train. NOTES When IF Clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, we put a comma after it. Inversion is used in conditional sentences where if is replaced by had, were and should. If Andrew had worked harder, he would have passed your final exam. = Andrew would have passed your final exam if he had worked harder. Should he remember his own name, we will be able to help him. = If he remembers his own name, … Should you not wish to join them, you must let them know before 4 o’clock. = If you don’t wish to join them, … Were we to have kids, we would need a bigger house. = If we had kids, … Were there not the COVID-19 outbreak, they could have gone to Wuhan for their holiday. = If there weren’t the COVID-19 outbreak, … Were this job not for the money, it wouldn’t be worthwhile. = If this job weren’t for the money, … Had I known you were waiting outside, I would have invited you to come in. = If I had known you were waiting outside, … Had it not rained yesterday, we would have finished painting the walls. = If it hadn’t rained yesterday, … Present Tense is used in IF Clause instead of will, shall to refer to Future. But: Will can be used in IF Clause with the meaning of willingness, insistence & a result of the action of the Main Clause. Present Subjunctive is used in IF Clause to emphasize an uncertainty. If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I’ll go on a trip. If you will sell your car, I’ll buy it. (willingness) = If you are willing to sell your car, … If you will get drunk every night, you’ll come down with headache. (Insistence) If it will make you happier, I’ll give up smoking. (the result of the action) If anyone should call, please let me know. If the news be true, we may get much trouble. WISHES Wish + to-infinitive When we use wish followed by a verb in the to-infinitive form, wish means the same as want, but it is more formal. We do not normally use wish in the continuous form when we use it with a to-infinitive: We don’t use a that-clause after wish when it is a more formal version of want: We can use an object before the to-infinitive: When we use an object after wish, we must also use a verb in the to-infinitive form. Alternatively, we can say want or (more politely) would like: I wish to speak to Mr. Hennessy, please. Not: I’m wishing to speak to … I wish to visit you in the summer, if possible. Not: I wish (that) I visit you in the summer … I did not wish my family to know about Sara, so I told them nothing. We wish to have a table near the window, please. (or We would like a table near the window, please.) Not: We wish a table near the window … Wish + Indirect Object + Direct Object We use wish with two objects, an indirect object + a direct object, for expressions of good wishes and hopes that good things will happen to people: I wish [IO] you [DO] success in your new job. I’ve got my driving test tomorrow. Wish [IO] me [DO] luck! We wish [IO] you [DO] a long and happy life together. We wish [IO] you [DO] A Merry Christmas. Wish + that-clause - We use wish with a that-clause when we regret or are sorry that things are not different. We imagine a different past, present or future. S + wish + S (that) = Only if FUTURE S + would/ could/ might/ etc. + V0 PRESENT S + Ved/2 S + were PAST Past Perfect I just wish that everything could be as it used to be. If only I would take the trip with you next week. Only if we didn’t have to go to class today. He wishes that he were in Dalat at present. I wish that she had not failed in the exam. If only I had met her yesterday. - In informal situations, we usually omit that. I wish I had his mobile phone number; we could tell him the good news. (I don’t have his mobile phone number; it would be good if I had it.) I wish you hadn’t told me how the film ends. You’ve spoilt it for me. (You told me how the film ends; it would have been better if you had not told me.) Wish + verb forms in the that-clause - The verb forms we use in that-clauses after wish are similar to the verb forms in conditional clauses after if. We use a past verb form for past, present and future meanings. if wish It would be better if you weren’t making a noise. I wish you’d stop making so much noise. It would be good if I knew how to use this DVD player. I wish I knew how to use this DVD player. It would have been better if I had not said it. I wish I hadn’t said that. I can see I’ve upset you. Sorry. - In informal situations, we can use wish in the continuous form like this. He’s embarrassing everyone. I’m just wishing he would go away! Warning: - We use hope, not wish, when we want something to happen in the future or when we want something to have happened in the past. IG: phuc.gol I hope the weather’s fine tomorrow. References: - BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 (CTU) Not: I wish the weather’s fine tomorrow. - CAMBRIDGE DTICTIONARY I hope they didn’t miss their flight. Not: I wish they didn’t miss their flight.